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342                                                 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE                  ,      " .

scalp is covered with hair about 1 to 2 long, which, is generally dark. Lamigo is'
nowhere seen except on the shoulders. The skin is pale, and. covered with vernlx
caseosa. The nails project beyond the ends of the fingers but reach only the tips of the
toes. The cartilages have formed in the nose and ears. The umbilicus is situated -in
the central part between the piibes and the ensiform cartilage. The testicles are con-
tamed in the scrotum. The labia majora cover the nymphse and clitoris. The rectum,
contains dark brownish, green or nearly black meconium, which is voided within a few
tours after live birth. The centre of ossification is found in the lower epiphysis of the
femur and measures from J-ths of a line to 4 lines in diameter. The centre of ossification
may also be found in the cuboid and in the upper end of the tibia.


When miscarriage is proved to Have taken place, the defence cannot
deny it, but may raise a point that it was induced spontaneously and not
criminally. In such a case it is not always easy for the medical man to give
a definite opinion simply from examining the woman or the contents of the
uterus. Natural miscarriage occurs generally in women who SHre^wegk,
irritable and* unhealthy, and when "the embryo or the foetal membJanesare
diseased. The medical man is? therefore, justified in pronouncing it as
criminal miscarriage, if he finds lacerations in the vagiiia and on the cervix,
or marks of violencejon^the abdomen o:La^bealthy woman, or wounds on the
foetus or mSnite^aesT^'otEefwise free from disease. The occurrence of
sgptfcasi^^                                but not conclusive, of criminal miscarriage,

Septic peritonitis or metritis occurs more frequently in criminal than in
natural miscarriage but it may occur in the latter, if proper antiseptic
precautions are not taken in its after-treatment, whereas it may not occur
in criminal miscarriage, if proper attention is paid to asepsis while inducing

The question whether the marks of injuries on the vagina and the cervix
were due to criminal interference, or due to traumatism by the passage of
the foetus during spontaneous miscarriage can be determined by noting
their site, extent and appearance, and the physical development of the foetus.
It may be mentioned that in a miscarriage of two to three months' preg-
nancy the foetus is usually expeEed without lacerating the cervical tissue.